Medicine, Physick, and Surgery
Late Middle Ages,
/ Egyptian / Assyrian, etc
grounding in physical treatment
- BUT, magical / non-rational vs disease
of rational thought / logical reasoning – Not just about medicine
- Hippocrates --
“I’ve got a start, you carry on” gets corrupted into dogma
– actually practiced in Rome
– Materia Medica
(actually Greek living in Rome)
– beginnings of anatomical study
knew perfectly well that his animals weren’t exactly the same as humans.
However, his caveats and qualifications get corrupted into MORE dogma.
of Greco-Roman knowledge through the Dark Ages
of some research and discoveries as well.
Branches of Health Care
/ Resurrection of Ancient Knowledge
of Empirical study
upper-crust if not upper-class
in Wisdom of the Ancients
herbs, Hippocrates, Galen, et al.
diagnoses, and prescribes
DOESN’T get hands dirty
(or woman) who’s undergone an apprenticeship
of knowledge is herbs and remedies, and the compounding of medicines
addition to herbal medicine, there is some chemical (or alchemical)
material being used.
somewhat in midwifery and surgery. Also dispensed medical advice, and
a tradesman – apprenticed anywhere from 7 to 14 years
places like England
and France, certified
by sitting for a board of the College
variable in skill, training, and social class
and itinerant tooth-pullers
and Court Surgeons
of expertise is physical problems, and the repair thereof.
barber-surgeon – major business is going to be haircuts and shaves, with
the occasional bleeding, purging, or tooth-drawing
- (Surgeon, cont’d)
surgeon – equivalent to a modern trauma surgeon. Has to deal with
everything from bullets to bill-hooks.
surgeon – will be packing some physick in the chest, since nearest
physician or apothecary’s possibly on the other side of the ocean
- Medical theory of the times
ca 500-300 BCE, from superstition to rational thought / logical analysis
Hot and Moist
Cold and Moist
aka Black Bile: Cold and Dry
aka Yellow Bile: Hot and Dry
in Humours can cause illness; treatment involves re-balancing.
with herbs or chemicals – treat by sympathy, using medicines that push the condition to its
conclusion; or treat by antipathy, using medicines to fight the condition
of phlegm, for example, might be treated by hot, dry herbs.
treatment – bleeding for fevers, blistering for phlegm, etcetera
- Medicines – some worked, some didn’t
– Comfrey – Willow Bark – St
John’s Wort – Clove Oil – Quinine / Chinchona –
compounds like Laudanum
with strong physiological effects, but hazardous – Wormwood – Belladonna
of dubious effect – lettuce juice (wild yes, domestic no) – plantain
–oddball items like pigeon poop or deer’s antler
- Experimentation, vs “Wisdom”
no IVs or hypodermics, what does one do?
ways – Inhaled / Sniffed; Swallowed; Skin Absorption; Per Rectum
of Tobacco: Inhaled to purge Phlegm; Swallowed as a Vomit; Poultice for
stings and “green wounds”; Injected as a Parasiticide
/ Pain Control
Sticks and Restraints
1699, Germ Theory of Disease, mid 19th C
evidence: Clean = good
Astringents, & Antiseptics
(Much more useful than this small class
Quick References: Wikipedia, with
doses of Salt as Appropriate
Culpeper, Nicholas, Culpeper's Complete Herbal and English Physician originally 1640s (Paperback - Mar 1987)
Galen, 131-201CE, On the Natural
by A. J. Brock. University of Adelaide,
Galen, while more of a theorist than Hippocrates, does display analytical
thinking about medicine, rather than the magical thinking of pre-rational
Hippocrates, 460-377BCE, Works. Translated by Francis
Adams. Available at the University
of Adelaide, http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/h/hippocrates/ Hippocrates runs to practical applications
for various ailments.
Longrigg, James, 1934-, Greek rational medicine [electronic resource]
: philosophy and medicine from Alcmaeon to the Alexandrians. The
link for the book is http://www.netLibrary.com/urlapi.asp?action=summary&v=1&bookid=79901. Book covers the development of medicine in Greece
from pre-rational, deriving from Egyptian and Babylonian sources, through
classical-period beginnings of rational practice.
Magner, Lois N., 1943-, A History Of Medicine. Second Edition, Publisher: Taylor &
Francis, Pub date: c2005.
Institutes of Health, “Greek
Medicine from the Gods to Galen” (2002). Located at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/greek/index.html.
This is an online exhibit giving a brief overview of Greek medicine, starting with divine /
pre-rational concepts and progressing forward.
Paré, Ambroise, 1510-1590, The Apologie and Treatise of AmbroiseParé. Published by the Classics of Medicine Library, 1984.
Rawcliffe, Carole, Medicine
& Society in Later Medieval England.
Sutton Illustrated History Paperbacks Paperback - Mar 1998
Woodall, John, The Surgions Mate. Originally
published 1617. Current ed. By John Kirkup, 1978.